When the diagnosis of ADHD is made, the first two questions that come to a parents mind are Why ADHD happens? And why it is with my child? And often parents are having guilt as they think it to be their fault. They think that it is because of their failure to upbringing the children in proper ways or it is because of faulty parenting. But, it has no link with parenting, and there is a multitude of factors that play a role. Some prominent ones are listed below.
Heredity. There is evidence that ADHD run in families. The studies have found that a 25% child who has ADHD has at least one relative with ADHD. The findings are supported by the twin studies, which found high concordance rate among monozygotic twins in comparison to dizygotic twins.
Altered brain functioning and the anatomy of the brain: the brain chemicals or neurotransmitters are said to have a role in ADHD. Two main neurotransmitters involved in ADHD as per the researches are dopamine and norepinephrine. These neurotransmitters affect the signals across the brain. Abnormal activities in the areas of the brain, which regulates attention, are observed in the studies. The areas that are involved in the executive functions are also playing a part in the symptoms or disorder of ADHD. The studies have found that the children who have ADHD have 4% smaller brains in comparison to children without ADHD. MRI findings in investigations are suggestive of some smaller brain parts in children with ADHD. These studies also documented reduced blood flow to the frontal brain that regulates the executive functions.
The studies have found a link between the mothers’ exposure to different chemicals and the occurrence of ADHD in their children. The smoking in pregnant women increases the risk of giving birth to an ADHD child. The abuse or addiction to alcohols and drugs is also related to it as it reduces the activity of related neurotransmitter-producing neurones. Neurones are the specialized cells of the nervous system. The exposure of the expectant mother to different chemical is also related to the occurrence of ADHD in their children, and one such notable chemical is polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). It had wide industrial use in past, and the use of has reduced considerably in the recent times.
Exposure to Environmental Hazards:
As we discussed in the previous section that the mother’s exposure to PCBs increased the likelihood of ADHD in to be born child, it can have detrimental effects on the children after birth also. The studies suggested that the exposure of children to PCBs increases the risk of symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. Another chemic found to be associated with is lead. The children with exposure to lead have greater chances of having a diagnosis of ADHD in comparison to their counterparts not undergoing this exposure.
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